The Tubulin Code: Post-translational Modifications of Tubulins

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are highly dynamic and often reversible processes where protein functional properties are altered by addition of a chemical group or another protein to its amino acid residues. As key cytoskeletal proteins with roles in neuronal development, growth, motility and intracellular trafficking, tubulins and microtubules (MTs) are major substrates for PTMs. They include tyrosination/detyrosination, '2-tubulin formation, acetylation, phosphorylation, polyamination, ubiquitination, polyglutamylation and glycylation (see Figure). Most of these PTMs preferentially take place on tubulin subunits already incorporated into microtubules.

PTMs are involved in fine-tuning of interactions between microtubules and different MT-interacting proteins. Most axonal microtubules are detyrosinated and further labeled with acetate and polyglutamate marks. By contrast, the unstable microtubules are enriched in carboxy-terminal tyrosination and devoid of glutamate tails. Detyrosination and polyglutamylation of MTs can selectively modulate the affinities and motility of molecular motors. Acetylation seems to control intracellular transport by regulating the traffic of kinesin motors. Microtubules PTMs deregulation have impact on neuronal development and diseases.


FIGURE: Tubulin PTM Overview. Adapted from C. Janke; J. Cell. Biol. 206, 461 (2014)

Cat. No.
DescriptionIsotype/Source
Application
Validated Post-translational Modification-specific Antibodies
AG-20B-0068
anti-alpha-Tubulin (acetylated), mAb (TEU318)
Mouse IgG1
ICC, WB
AG-20B-0020
anti-Polyglutamylation Modification, mAb (GT335)
Mouse IgG1κ
EM, ICC, IP, WB
AG-20B-0020B
anti-Polyglutamylation Modification, mAb (GT335) (Biotin)
Mouse IgG1κ
ICC, IP, WB
AG-25B-0030
anti-Polyglutamate chain (polyE), pAb (IN105)
Rabbit
ICC, WB
Recombinant Microtubule-target Antibodies
AG-27B-0009
anti-Tubulin-GTP, mAb (rec.) (MB11)
Human IgG2λ
ICC
AG-27B-0005
anti-alpha-Tubulin, mAb (rec.) (F2C)
Human IgG2λ
ICC, WB
AG-27B-0005TD
anti-alpha-Tubulin, mAb (rec.) (F2C) (ATTO 488)
Human IgG2λ
ICC
AG-27B-0008
anti-E-Tubulin, mAb (rec.) (S11B)
Rabbit
ELISA, ICC, WB



Source:
Product flyer: Neuroscience Research

Related to:
Brands: AdipoGen Life Sciences
Product groups: Antibodies