Autoimmune Disease Biomarkers APRIL & BAFF

The B cell-stimulating molecules, BAFF (B cell activating factor also known as BLyS; TALL-1; CD257 or TNFSF13B) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand, also known as CD256 or TNFSF13), are critical factors in the maintenance of the B cell pool and humoral immunity. They are implicated in several human autoimmune diseases with autoreactive B cell involvement, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). APRIL might also function in enhancing proliferation of some tumor cells, especially B cell malignancies and BAFF levels are increased in some lymphoid cancers.

Best-In-Class APRIL & BAFF ELISA Kits

Cat. No.
Product NameProduct Description
AG-45B-0012
APRIL (human) ELISA Kit
The APRIL (human) ELISA Kit is a sandwich ELISA for specific quantitative determination of human APRIL in serum, plasma and cell culture supernatants. This ELISA Kit shows both high specificity and high sensitivity, which is a clear advantage compared to other APRIL (human) ELISA Kits from key competitors.
AG-45B-0001
BAFF, Soluble (human) ELISA Kit (hypersensitive)The BAFF, Soluble (human) ELISA Kit is a sandwich ELISA for specific quantitative determination of human BAFF in serum, plasma and cell culture supernatants. This ELISA Kit does not cross-react with mouse BAFF and has been chosen by several CROs for its high specificity and high sensitivity.

Autoimmune Disease Biomarkers APRIL & BAFF

The B cell-stimulating molecules, BAFF (B cell activating factor also known as BLyS; TALL-1; CD257 or TNFSF13B) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand, also known as CD256 or TNFSF13), are critical factors in the maintenance of the B cell pool and humoral immunity (1, 2).
APRIL is a secreted protein that binds to transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI), B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). APRIL can interact with carbohydrate side chains of proteoglycans that may trigger cross-linkng (3).
BAFF is a transmembrane protein which is proteolytically processed by furin to be released as a soluble cytokine (2). Soluble BAFF exists either as trimers (BAFF 3-mer), or as an ordered assembly of 20 trimers (BAFF 60-mer) (4). BAFF 3-mer and BAFF 60-mer both signal through BAFF-R, only TACI (and BCMA) respond to BAFF 60-mer and not to BAFF 3-mer (4). Similar observations are true with APRIL, which needs to be cross-linked in order to activate TACI (4).
APRIL maintains B cell homeostasis by acting at a later stage, modulating the function and survival of antigen-experienced B cells. BAFF is a key survival factor for peripheral B cells and together with IL-6 plasma cell differentiation (2). APRIL (as well as BAFF) stimulates class-switch recombination (CSR), hence contributes to shaping humoral effector mechanisms. With regards to humoral memory, APRIL is involved in the establishment and survival of the long-lived plasma cell (LLPC) pool in the bone marrow (BM) (5). Besides its major role in B cell biology, BAFF co-stimulates activated T cells.
APRIL is expressed by a number of myeloid-derived cell types including BM granulocytes, megakaryocytes, eosinophils, osteoclasts, and by dendritic cells following exposure to IFN-α, IFN-γ or CD40L. APRIL expression is induced during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. APRIL expression is not limited to cells of myeloid origin but can be found in epithelial cells of the gut, tonsil, breast and skin. Finally, APRIL is expressed in tumor cell lines and human cancer cells of colon, thyroid and lymphoid origin (1).
BAFF is mainly produced by innate immune cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, follicular dendritic cells, T cells, activated B cells, some malignant B cells, but non-lymphoid cells like astrocytes, synoviocytes and epithelial cells can also produce BAFF.
BAFF and APRIL are implicated in several human autoimmune diseases with autoreactive B cell involvement, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (6), Sjö gren’s syndrome (SS) (7), IgA nephropathy (IgAN) (8), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (9). APRIL might also function in enhancing proliferation of some tumor cells, especially B cell malignancies (10, 11). BAFF levels are also increased in some lymphoid cancers (12).


LITERATURE REFERENCES:
1. Targeting BAFF and APRIL in systemic lupus erythematosus and other antibody-associated diseases: E. Samy, et al.; Int. Rev. Immunol. 36, 3 (2017)

2. Cracking the BAFF code: F. Mackay & P. Schneider; Nat. Rev. Immunol. 9, 491 (2009)

3. Identification of proteoglycans as the APRIL-specific binding partners: K. Ingold, et al.; J. Exp. Med. 201, 1375 (2005)

4. TACI, unlike BAFF-R, is solely activated by oligomeric BAFF and APRIL to support survival of activated B cells and plasmablasts: C. Bossen, et al.; Blood 111, 1004 (2009)

5. Factors of the bone marrow microniche that support human plasma cell survival and immunoglobulin secretion: D.C. Nguyen, et al.; Nat. Commun. 12, 3698 (2018)

6. Raised serum APRIL levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: T. Koyama, et al.; Ann. Rheum. Dis. 64, 1065 (2005)

7. The expression of APRIL in Sjogren’s syndrome: Aberrant expression of APRIL in the salivary gland: J.L. Vosters, et al.; Rheumatology (Oxford) 51, 1557 (2012)

8. Increased APRIL Expression Induces IgA1 Aberrant Glycosylation in IgA Nephropathy: Y.L. Zhai, et al.; Medicine (Baltimore) 95, e3099 (2016)

9. The BAFF/APRIL system: an important player in systemic rheumatic diseases: F. Mackay, et al.; Curr. Dir. Autoimmun. 8, 243 (2005)

10. APRIL, a New Ligand of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Family, Stimulates Tumor Cell Growth: M. Hahne, et al.; J. Exp. Med. 188, 1185 (1998)

11. In situ detection of APRIL-rich niches for plasma-cell survival and their contribution to B-cell lymphoma development: M. Burjanadze, et al.; Histol. Histopathol. 24, 1061 (2009)

12. Serum BAFF predicts prognosis better than APRIL in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab plus CHOP chemotherapy: S.J. Kim, et al.; Eur. J. Haematol. 81, 177 (2008) 

Highly Active Proteins

Cat. No.Product NameProduct Description
AG-40B-0017
APRIL (human) (multimeric) (rec.)MultimericAPRIL™ very effectively stimulates B cell proliferation. This protein binds to human and mouse BCMA and TACI and to proteoglycans.
AG-40B-0088
APRIL (human) (H98) (multimeric) (rec.)MultimericAPRIL™ very effectively stimulates B cell proliferation. This protein binds to human and mouse BCMA and TACI. Does not bind to proteoglycans.
AG-40B-0089
APRIL (mouse) (multimeric) (rec.)MultimericAPRIL™ very effectively stimulates B cell proliferation. This protein binds to human and mouse BCMA and TACI and to proteoglycans.
AG-40B-0035
APRIL (mouse) (H98) (multimeric) (rec.)MultimericAPRIL™ very effectively stimulates B cell proliferation. This protein binds to human and mouse BCMA and TACI. Does not bind to proteoglycans.
AG-40B-0112
BAFF, Soluble (human) (60-mer) (rec.) (highly active)Binds to human and mouse BAFF-R, TACI and BCMA. Increases B cell survival/proliferation. Increases CD21/CD23 expression on B cells in vivo. Activates BAFF-R, TACI and BCMA receptors.
AG-40B-0016
BAFF (aa134-285), Soluble (human) (rec.)Binds to human and mouse BAFF-R, TACI and BCMA.
AG-40B-0120
Fc (human):BAFF (human) (rec.)Binds to human and mouse BAFF-R, TACI and BCMA. Rescues the production of mature follicular and marginal zone B cells in vitro and in vivo.
AG-40B-0022
BAFF, Soluble (mouse) (rec.)Binds to human and mouse BAFF-R, TACI and BCMA.
AG-40B-0027
BAFF-R (human):Fc (human) (rec.)Binds to human and mouse BAFF. Inhibits BAFF activity.
AG-40B-0080
BCMA (human):Fc (human) (rec.)Binds mouse and human BAFF and APRIL. Blocks the binding of BAFF and APRIL to their receptors BCMA and TACI, inhibiting BAFF- and APRILmediated B cell activation.
AG-40B-0076
BCMA (mouse):Fc (human) (rec.)Binds mouse and human BAFF and APRIL. Blocks the binding of mouse BAFF and human APRIL to their receptors BCMA and TACI.
AG-40B-0079
TACI (human):Fc (human) (rec.)Binds to human and mouse BAFF and APRIL. Inhibits BAFF and APRIL activity.

Validated Antibodies for BAFF and APRIL Research

Cat. No.Product NameProduct Description
AG-27B-0017
anti-APRIL (mouse), mAb (rec.) (blocking) (Apry-1-3)Recognizes mouse APRIL. Does not recognize mouse BAFF. Inhibits the binding of mouse APRIL to BCMA and TACI.
AG-46B-0001
BAFF, Soluble (human) Matched Pair Detection SetDetects human BAFF in plasma, serum and cell culture supernatant with a sensitivity of 16 pg/ml. Does not detect mouse BAFF.
AG-20B-0017
anti-BAFF (human), mAb (blocking) (4.62)Recognizes human BAFF. Inhibits human BAFF binding and is used in IP application.
AG-20B-0018
anti-BAFF (human), mAb (2.81)Recognizes human BAFF and is used in IP application.
AG-20B-0037
anti-BAFF (human), mAb (1-35-1)Recognizes human BAFF and is used in FACS application.
ANC-266-020
anti-CD257 [BAFF] (human), mAb (ANC2H3)Recognizes human BAFF. Inhibits human BAFF binding and is used in FACS application.
AG-20B-0016
anti-BAFF-R (human), mAb (HuBR9.1)Recognizes human BAFF-R. The Standard for FACS application.
AG-20B-0034
anti-BAFF-R (mouse), mAb (9B9)Recognizes mouse BAFF-R. Used for depletion of B cells in vivo and in FACS application.
ANC-275-020
anti-CD268 [BAFF-R] (human), mAb (ANC268.2/6E6)Recognizes human BAFF-R. Used for FACS application.
ANC-269-020
anti-CD269 [BCMA] (human), mAb (ANC3B1)Recognizes human BCMA. Used for FACS application.
AG-20B-0035
anti-TACI (mouse), mAb (1A-10)Recognizes mouse TACI. The Standard for FACS application.

Other Reagents for BAFF and APRIL Research

Cat. No.Product NameProduct Description
ANC-267-020
anti-LTbetaR (human), mAb (ANCLTR2/9E2)Recognizes human LTβR. Used in FACS application
AG-20B-0008
anti-LTbetaR (mouse), mAb (4H8 WH2)Recognizes mouse LTβR. Agonistic antibody inducing BAFF, chemokines and integrins in vitro and in vivo and used in FACS application.
AG-20B-0041
anti-LTbetaR (mouse), mAb (3C8)Recognizes mouse LTβR. Agonistic antibody inducing BAFF, chemokines and integrins in vitro and in vivo and used in FACS application.
AG-40B-0009
LIGHT, Soluble (human) (rec.)Binds to human and mouse LTβR and human HVEM and DcR3.
CHI-HF-21035
IL-35 (human):Fc (human) (rec.)Bioactive in a cell proliferation assay using anti-CD3 activated human peripheral mononuclear cells.
CHI-MF-11135
IL-35 (mouse):Fc (human) (rec.)Bioactive in a cell proliferation assay of Con A activated mouse splenocytes and in in vivo studies.

anti-BAFF (mouse), mAb (blocking) (Sandy-2)

Cat. No.Product NameProduct Description
AG-20B-0063
anti-BAFF (mouse), mAb (blocking) (Sandy-2)The anti-BAFF (mouse), mAb (blocking) (Sandy-2) is a monoclonal antibody that recognizes mouse BAFF and works specifically in IP and Functional Application. The antibody inhibits mouse BAFF binding to BAFF-R and TACI. It is highly potent in blocking mouse BAFF in vivo and induces B cell depletion and generates a phenotype similar to that observed in BAFF-/- mice. The antibody is available with or without preservatives.

anti-APRIL (mouse), mAb (rec.) (blocking) (Apry-1-1)

Cat. No.Product NameProduct Description
AG-27B-0001
anti-APRIL (mouse), mAb (rec.) (blocking) (Apry-1-1)The anti-APRIL (mouse), mAb (rec.) (blocking) (Apry-1-1) is a recombinant monoclonal antibody that recognizes mouse APRIL and works specifically in IP and Functional Application. The antibody inhibits mouse APRIL binding to BCMA and TACI. It is highly potent in blocking mouse APRIL in vitro and in vivo. The antibody is available with or without preservatives.



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Brands: AdipoGen Life Sciences, Ancell Corporation, Chimerigen Laboratories, LLC
Products groups: AdipoGen Life Sciences, Assays, Proteins / Signaling Molecules