Cell Cycle Pathway

The cell cycle pathway is a unidirectional process that governs cell division. This process, which cannot be reversed once started, is critical for cell survival. The cell cycle typically involves four phases: S phase, in which DNA is replicated, M phase, in which chromosomes are separated and two distinct cells are formed, and G1 and G2 phases during which the cell is preparing for cell division. The majority of the cell cycle pathway is regulated by two classes of proteins: cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Cyclins and CDKs form complexes that enable CDKs to phosphorylate and activate specific cell cycle intermediates. In the initial stages of the cell-cycle signal, cyclin D will bind to CDK4 and this complex will phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene[1]. During a quiescent state, Rb is bound to DNA and blocks the transcription of specific genes. After phosphorylation, Rb becomes unbound and genes necessary for the cell cycle are now accessible.

The cell cycle pathway is a highly-regulated process that incorporates three major checkpoints. The first checkpoint is the G1 checkpoint, which determines whether or not a cell will enter into the cell division process. The second checkpoint, G2, will determine if the cell will enter into mitosis. Both the G1 and G2 checkpoints can be affected by the presence or absence of various growth factors, DNA damage, or replicative senescence. The final checkpoint, metaphase, ensures proper chromosome alignment prior to cell division. The cell cycle pathway is intrinsically linked to cell survival and cell death. For instance, failure of a cell to meet the requirements of the individual cell cycle checkpoints will result in the cell undergoing apoptosis.

In cancer, the cell cycle checkpoints are often dysfunctional. Checkpoint proteins, such as Rb or p53, are often mutated or inactivated and this can result in cell division despite incomplete DNA synthesis and segregation errors. Inappropriate continuation of the cell cycle can lead to genomic instability, which is a common feature of malignant cells.

1. Nigg. 1995. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Bioessays. 17(6):471-80.
Cell Cycle Pathway

Targets
ANAPC10 AntibodyCDC26 AntibodyFZR1 AntibodyPTTG2 Antibody
ANAPC2 AntibodyCDC27 AntibodyGADD45A AntibodyRAD21 Antibody
ANAPC7 AntibodyCDK2 AntibodyGADD45B AntibodyRB1 Antibody
ATM AntibodyCDK4 AntibodyGSK3B AntibodyRBL1 Antibody
CCNA2 AntibodyCDK6 AntibodyHDAC1 AntibodyRBX1 Antibody
CCNB3 AntibodyCDK7 AntibodyHDAC2 AntibodySFN Antibody
CCND1 AntibodyCDKN1B AntibodyMCM2 AntibodySMAD3 Antibody
CCND3 AntibodyCDKN2B AntibodyMCM4 AntibodySMAD4 Antibody
CCNE1 AntibodyCDKN2D AntibodyMCM5 AntibodySMC1A Antibody
CCNE2 AntibodyCHEK1 AntibodyMCM6 AntibodyTFDP1 Antibody
CCNH AntibodyCREBBP AntibodyMCM7 AntibodyTFDP2 Antibody
CDC23 AntibodyCUL1 AntibodyMDM2 AntibodyTGFB2 Antibody
CDC25A AntibodyE2F4 AntibodyPCNA AntibodyYWHAE Antibody
CDC25B AntibodyE2F5 AntibodyPLK1 AntibodyYWHAH Antibody
CDC25C AntibodyEP300 AntibodyPRKDC AntibodyYWHAQ Antibody

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Source:
Pathway: Cell Cycle

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Brands: Aviva Systems Biology
Product groups: Antibodies