16 March 2023

Neural lineage development markers for neuroscience research

From identifying specific populations of cells, understanding the development of our brain to tracking the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, neural lineage markers has revolutionized our understanding of the nervous system.

How does the brain form?

The formation of the brain starts during early embryonic development and is a complex process that involves a series of intricate steps. These steps include various cell types that make up the central and peripheral nervous systems such as neuroepithelial cells (or neural stem cells), radial glial cells, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and neurons (including motor neurons).

The process begins with the differentiation of neural stem cells into various types of progenitor cells, which then divide and differentiate into specific types of neurons and glial cells. The migration of these neurons and glial cells to their final destinations in the developing brain, followed by the formation and extension of axons and dendrites, and the establishment of synaptic connections between neurons, all contribute to the formation of the brain.

Additionally, the development of the brain is shaped by various genetic and environmental factors that regulate the expression of genes involved in brain development.

A better comprehension of neuronal lineages is essential to our understanding of the nervous system and how it develops and functions in health and disease.

4 reasons to study the neural lineage pathways

Insight into developmental disorders: Studying neural lineage cells can provide insight into how brain development occurs and what can go wrong during this process. This can help better understand developmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, which have been linked to abnormal neural development.

Understanding neural repair and regeneration: Neural lineage cells play a crucial role in repairing and regenerating damaged neurons. Studying these cells can help better understand the mechanisms behind neural repair and regeneration, which can lead to new therapies for neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

Improved understanding of brain plasticity: Neural lineage cells are responsible for the formation of new neural connections and for modifying existing connections. Studying these cells can help us understand the underlying mechanisms behind brain plasticity, which is the brain’s ability to change and adapt in response to new experiences and information.

Improved understanding of age-related decline: As we age, the ability of neural lineage cells to repair and regenerate damaged neurons declines. Studying these cells can help us better understand the underlying causes of age-related decline in brain function and lead to new therapies to improve brain health in older adults.

Selected primary antibodies targeting the neural lineage pathways from Atlas Antibodies

Understanding the development and progression of lineage cell types within the nervous system is critical for understanding the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and other brain diseases and can help identify potential sites for intervention. PrecisA Monoclonals  and Triple A Polyclonals are enhanced validated primary antibodies highly specific to their target developed by Atlas Antibodies

Below is a selection of markers targeting the neural lineage development pathways such as: 

Neuroepithelial cells


Figure 1. Neuroepithelial cells in mouse developing hindbrain E6-E14. Anti-SOX2 monoclonal antibody (IgG1, AMAb91307; green); Anti-L1CAM monoclonal antibody (IgG2a, AMAb91829; red).

Radial glial cells


Figure 2. Radial glia in developing cerebellum of mouse embryo E11-E14 and glial cells in adult mouse brain. Anti-VIM polyclonal antibody (HPA001762; red). Anti-PAX6 monoclonal antibody (IgG1, AMAb91372; green).

Intermediate progenitors


Figure 3. Immunofluorescence staining of neural progenitors in the developing cerebral cortex of mouse embryos. Anti-SOX2 monoclonal antibody (IgG1, AMAb91307; green). Anti-MSI1 (Musashi-1) polyclonal antibody (HPA074923; red). Nuclei are stained with DAPI, in blue.

Restricted progenitors

Immature neuronal cells


Immature glial cells

>PDGF receptor alpha

Figure 4. Immunofluorescence staining of immature neurons in the developing telencephalon/cerebral cortex of mouse embryos E6- E14. Anti-TUBB3 monoclonal antibody (IgG1, AMAb91394; green). Anti-TBR1 polyclonal antibody (HPA078644; red).

Differentiated neurons

>NEFM medium
>NEFM heavy

Figure 5. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated neurons in the adult mouse cerebral cortex. (Left) Anti-MAP2 polyclonal antibody (HPA012828; green). Anti-RBFOX3 monoclonal (IgG2b, AMAb91748; red). Anti-NEFM monoclonal (IgG1, AMAb91027; blue). (Right) Anti-VGluT1 monoclonal antibody (IgG2b, AMAb91041; green). Anti-GAD1 monoclonal (IgG2a, AMAb91076; red). Anti-ChAT monoclonal (IgG1, AMAb91129; blue).

Neural lineage development markers for neuroscience research

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