23 June 2021

Tools for classic cancer research

Featured research tools from ABclonal for classic cancer research topic – Tumor-associated macrophage phenotyping biomarkers


Among the multiple immune cells, macrophages plays an important role throughout the tumor progression process. They are converted into tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) when they are recruited into the tumor microenvironment. Induced by different microenvironmental signals, macrophages would polarize into two functional phenotypes, classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2). M2 macrophages are often further subdivided into M2a, M2b, M2c, and M2d based on phenotypic variations.

As a promising targets for tumor therapy, more and more researches are focusing on TAMs. The functional biomarkers of TAMs are often used to evaluate or define the subpopulations of TAMs. According to a large number of experimental studies, TAMs biomarkers can be approximately classified into the following types: cell surface markers, transcription factors, cytokines & chemokines, growth factors, mtabolic enzymes, extracellular matrix (ECM) components.

Types of biomarkersPotential biomarkers
Cell surface markersCD206, CD163, TGFβ receptor, CD40, CD80, CD86
Transcription factorsSTAT1, STAT3, STAT6, IRF3 ,IRF4, IRF5, IRF7
Cytokines & chemokinesTNFα, IL1β, IL12, IL10, ALOX15, CCL18, CCL2, CCL5, CCL7,CXCL8, CXCL12, M-CSF
Growth factorsEGF, VEGF, PDGF, FGF, TGFβ
Metabolic enzymesiNOS, Arginase 1
ECM componentsMMP‐9

Representative antibodies for biomarkers of tumor-associated macrophages

iNOS Rabbit pAb (A0312)
Arginase 1 (ARG1) Rabbit mAb (A4923)
Phospho-STAT1-Y701 Rabbit mAb (AP0054)
Phospho-STAT3-Y705 Rabbit mAb (AP0705)
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Representative ELISA kits for biomarkers of cancer-associated macrophages

Human IL-1 beta ELISA Kit (RK00001)
Human IL-12 p70 ELISA Kit (RK00014)
Human Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha ELISA Kit (RK00030)
Human IL-10 ELISA Kit (RK00012)
Human Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 ELISA Kit (RK00052)
Human CCL5/Rantes ELISA Kit (RK00077)
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