COVID-19 Reagents

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic still requires immediate action from researchers around the globe. The virus attaches to cells by binding its outer spike proteins to the receptor protein ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), which is highly expressed on respiratory cells. ACE2 also acts as the receptor for the human respiratory coronavirus NL63 and the SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Studies have shown that the binding affinity of the viral spike protein for ACE2 correlates with higher transmissibility of the coronavirus and contagiousness of the disease. Researchers are investigating both antiviral drugs and vaccines to block infection and replication of the virus. [ref. 1-5] Additionally, many scientists are looking into the ‘cytokine storm’, an excessive production of cytokines in response to the virus leading to adverse effects in the patient.

Several of our suppliers offer tools to assist researchers who are investigating treatments and vaccines against COVID-19. In this section, we give you an overview of all corona-related research reagents that we offer.

Products by category

COVID-19 Antibodies »»
COVID-19 Proteins »»
COVID-19 Detection Assays »»
COVID-19 Chemicals »»
COVID-19 Plasmids »»


Products by supplier

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Products by group/target

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3CLproHCoV-229EMERS CoV-orf4aORF8
ACE2HCoV-HKU1MERS CoV-orf4bPLpro
APN/CD13HCoV-NL63MERS CoV-orf5RdRp
Camostat mesylateHCoV-OC43MERS-CoVRemdesivir
Cathepsin / CTSL1Hemagglutinin esteraseNSP1SARS-CoV
DcCoVHydroxychloroquineNSP3SARS-CoV-2
DC-SIGN / CD209MERS CoV-ENSP8SIGNR1 / CD209b
DexamethasoneMERS CoV-MNucleocapsidSpike
DPP4/CD26MERS CoV-orf3ORF7aTMPRSS2






COVID-19 Antibodies

Antibodies are some of the most widely used research tools in life science. The specificity and affinity of these antibodies are of paramount importance for the success of a study.
Bio-Connect offers a comprehensive portfolio of high quality antibodies directed against the different components of SARS-CoV-2 as well as ACE2, allowing you to find a suitable antibody for any application. Besides this, we offer many related antibodies, for example targeting SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses. The manufacturing partners put great effort into testing the quality of their products and support the five pillars of antibody validation.

Most popular antibodies

Cat. No.DescriptionHostClonalitySpeciesApplicationSupplier
PK-AB718-3217ACE2 (CT) antibody (pAb)PromoCell
HPA000288Anti-ACE2RabbitPolyclonalHumanIHC, WBAtlas Antibodies
AG-20A-0037Banti-ACE2 (human), mAb (AC384) (Biotin)MonoclonalHumanELI, WBAdipoGen Life Sciences
A3001Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Antibody (Clone# 4C7)MouseMonoclonalELISABioVision
GTX632604SARS-CoV / SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody [1A9]MouseMonoclonalWB, FACSGeneTex
40143-T62SARS-CoV Nucleoprotein / NP Antibody, Rabbit PAb, Antigen Affinity PurifiedRabbitPolyclonalWB, ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IPSino Biological
40150-T62-COV2SARS-CoV Spike Antibody, Rabbit PAb, Antigen Affinity PurifiedRabbitPolyclonalWB, ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IPSino Biological
40143-MM05SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody, Mouse MAbMouseMonoclonalWB, ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IPSino Biological
40150-D001SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody, Chimeric MAbMouseMonoclonalELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IPSino Biological
bsm-41411MSARS-CoV-2 (1C7) Nucleocapsid protein Monoclonal AntibodyMouseMonoclonalSARS-CoV-2Bioss Antibodies
40143-R019SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleocapsid Antibody, Rabbit MAbRabbitMonoclonalWB, ELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IPSino Biological
40591-T62SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Antibody, Rabbit PAb, Antigen Affinity PurifiedSino Biological
40592-MM57SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Neutralizing Antibody, Mouse MabMouseMonoclonalSino Biological
40150-R007SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S1 Antibody, Rabbit MAbRabbitMonoclonalELISA, IHC-P, FCM, ICC/IF, IPSino Biological
40590-T62SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S2 Antibody, Rabbit PAb, Antigen Affinity PurifiedRabbitPolyclonalSino Biological
GTX635679SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [HL344]RabbitMonoclonalWB, ELISAGeneTex
GTX135356SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibodyRabbitPolyclonalWB, ICC/IFGeneTex
GTX635708SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 antibody [GT263]MouseMonoclonalWBGeneTex
GTX635654SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 antibody [HL6]RabbitMonoclonalWB, ICC/IF, ELISA, sELISAGeneTex
GTX100743TMPRSS2 antibody [N2C3]RabbitPolyclonalWBGeneTex

More SARS-CoV-2 and related antibodies can be found in our webshop

COVID-19 Proteins

As soon as the sequence of SARS-CoV-2 was determined in early 2020, the production of recombinant proteins was initiated. Recombinantly expressed protein is essential for investigation into the function of viral proteins and their separate subunits in COVID-19. Different parts of the coronavirus are investigated for potential treatment, production of preventive medicine or diagnostic kits. However, there is a particularly strong focus on the spike protein, which is mainly responsible for entry into the host cell. This protein is made up of several subunits, including the surface unit S1, transmembrane unit S2 and the receptor-binding domain (RBD). In addition to the spike protein, important components are the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the human ACE2 and TMPRSS receptors. Bio-Connect offers a comprehensive set of important SARS-CoV-2 and related proteins from several manufacturers.

Most popular proteins

Cat. No.DescriptionTagSupplier
AG-40B-0192BACE2 (human) (rec.) (Biotin)AdipoGen Life Sciences
10108-H08HHuman ACE2 / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Protein (His Tag)His tagSino Biological
40605-V08BHuman coronavirus (HCoV-229E) Spike Protein (S1+S2 ECD, His Tag)His tagSino Biological
40604-V08BHuman coronavirus (HCoV-NL63) Spike Protein (S1+S2 ECD, His Tag)His tagSino Biological
40607-V08BHuman coronavirus (HCoV-OC43) Spike Protein (S1+S2 ECD, His Tag)His tagSino Biological
40606-V08BHuman coronavirus HKU1 (isolate N5) (HCoV-HKU1) Spike Protein (S1+S2 ECD, His Tag)His tagSino Biological
40588-V08BSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleocapsid Protein (His tag)His tagSino Biological
40592-V08BSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Protein (RBD, His Tag)His tagSino Biological
40592-V08HSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Protein (RBD, His Tag)His tagSino Biological
40592-V05HSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Protein (RBD, mFc Tag)mFc TagSino Biological
40591-V08B1SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Protein (S1 Subunit, His tag)His tagSino Biological
40591-V08HSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Protein (S1 Subunit, His Tag)His tagSino Biological
40591-V05H1SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Protein (S1 Subunit, mFc Tag)mFc TagSino Biological
40589-V08B1SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Protein (S1+S2 ECD, His tag)His tagSino Biological
40590-V08BSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Protein (S2 ECD, His tag)His tagSino Biological
40592-VNAHSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD Recombinant ProteinSino Biological
40592-V05H1SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD-mFc (V367F) Recombinant ProteinSino Biological
40591-V08H3SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S1(D614G)-His Recombiant ProteinSino Biological
40591-V08H-BSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S1-His Recombinant Protein, BiotinylatedSino Biological
GTX135357-proSARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid proteinGeneTex

More SARS-CoV-2 and related proteins can be found in our webshop


COVID-19 Detection Assays

One of the early responses to the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 was to start testing a large amount of individuals who showed symptoms of COVID-19. The ability to identify and isolate patients has proven an important factor in preventing further spread of the disease. Detection of the virus can be done in several ways, depending on the laboratory performing them and the origin of the sample. At the moment, the most common tests are based on either finding the viral RNA by RT-PCR or identifying antibodies against the viral particles. Testing materials quickly became a scarcity as the virus spread, and many companies have dedicated their production to producing separate reagents or complete kits. The CE-IVD mark is used specifically for kits that conform to the health and safety standards for in vitro diagnostics in Europe. Also crucial in testing patients for coronavirus is adequate sample handling, which ensures that viral material is preserved until the actual test is performed. Therefore it is necessary to use dedicated materials for transportation and preparation of the samples. Finally, next to identifying viral components, detection assays are necessary to look into, for example, the activity of ACE2 and inhibitors. These kinds of assays will allow advances in the fields of medicine against COVID-19.

Our diagnostics division also offers various SARS-CoV-2 detection kits, such as rapid tests, PCR kits, and ELISA kits, including the iLAMP Novel CoV19 iONEBIO FICS.

Most popular detection assays

Cat. No.DescriptionDescriptionSupplier
orb6394461copy COVID-19 qPCR Kit CE IVDBiorbyt
RK041382019-nCoV Spike S1 Protein IgG Antibody Elisa KitThe ELISA kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of samples in serum, plasma (EDTA, citrate, heparin).
ABclonal
AG-45B-0023ACE2 (human) ELISA KitMeasure soluble ACE2 levels in serum, plasma, urine and cell culture supernatants. Soluble ACE2 may act as a competitive interceptor of SARS-CoV-2 and as biomarker.AdipoGen Life Sciences
PK-CA577-K310ACE2 Inhibitor Screening KitSimple fluorometric assay that can be used to identify and characterize Angiotensin II Converting Enzyme inhibitors/activators in a high-throughput format.PromoCell
3103010006ANDiS Viral Nucleic RNA Auto Extraction & Purification KitANDiS Viral RNA Auto Extraction & Purification Kit can efficiently purify the viral genome from different samples. The extracted sample is suitable for use in dowsnstream molecular diagnostic and detection applications. When used together with the ANDiS 350 Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction System, the process can be completed within 40 minutes, with up to 38 minutes of walkaway time.ABclonal
W-IgM/IgG-20COVID-19(SARS-CoV-2) IgM/IgGAntibody Test KitABclonal
RR-0479-02Liferiver Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real Time Multiplex RT-PCR KitNovel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real Time Multiplex RT-PCR Kit (Detection for 3 Genes) is used for the in vitro qualitative detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) RNA in upper respiratory tract specimens (nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal extracts) and lower respiratory tract specimens (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and deep cough sputum) by real time PCR systems. It is considered as an aid in the diagnosis of the 2019-nCoV infection.BioVendor
1N38C2Rapid 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Combo TestRapid 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Combo Test Card is an immunochromatography based one step in vitro test. It is designed for the rapid qualitative determination of IgG and IgM antibodies to 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV-2) in human serum, plasma, or whole blood.BioVendor
KIT40588SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleoprotein / NP ELISA Kit (incubation time 20 min)This kit is an ELISA for the quantitative measurement of 2019-nCoV coronavirus nucleocapsid protein in recombinant protein. It contains recombinant 2019-nCoV coronavirus nucleocapsid, and antibodies raised against the recombinant protein. This ELISA kit is complete and ready-to-use.Sino Biological
KIT40591SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike ELISA Kit (incubation time 20 min)This kit is an ELISA for the quantitative measurement of 2019-nCoV Coronavirus spike protein. It contains recombinant 2019-nCoV Coronavirus spike, and antibodies raised against the recombinant protein. This ELISA kit is complete and ready-to-use.Sino Biological
AG-45B-0020SARS-CoV-2 (Spike RBD) IgG Serological ELISA Kit (incl. False Positive Control Plate)This sensitive and specific SARS-CoV-2 (Spike RBD) IgG Serological ELISA Kit can be used for the qualitative measurement of human Immunoglobulin G (IgG) against SARS-CoV-2 Spike (Receptor Binding Domain) protein in serum and plasma samples.AdipoGen Life Sciences
AG-48B-0001SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitor Screening KitThe SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitor Screening Kit contains key reagents required to facilitate identification of SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. This inhibitor screen is based on a colorimetric ELISA kit, which measures the binding of the RBD of the Spike S protein from SARS-CoV-2 to its human receptor ACE2. This assay allows to identify and characterize the effect of different inhibitory molecules including antibodies or chemicals on the prevention of binding of SARS-CoV-2 virus to any ACE2-expressing cells.AdipoGen Life Sciences
AG-48B-0002SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies Detection KitDetect the presence of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum/plasma independently of species and isotypes.AdipoGen Life Sciences
41A225SARS-CoV-2 NP Ab ELISA (CE IVD)For the detection and qualitative measurement of total antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of SARS-CoV-2 virus in human blood.BioVendor
41A222SARS-CoV-2 NP IgG ELISA (CE IVD)For the detection and qualitative measurement of IgG class antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of SARS-CoV-2 virus in human blood.BioVendor
41A224SARS-CoV-2 NP IgM ELISA (CEIVD)For the detection and qualitative measurement of IgM class antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of SARS-CoV-2 virus in human blood.BioVendor
W-2019-nCov-100SARS-CoV-2 Nucleic Acid Test KitABclonal
08-65-00250SOLIScript 1-step CoV KitThis kit is optimized for probe based one-step RT real-time quantitative PCR assays. It contains all the components necessary (except template, primers, and probes) to perform cDNA synthesis and probe based qPCR in a single tube.Solis BioDyne
70406Viral DNA/RNA Isolation KitThis kit allows manual and automated extraction of DNA and RNA from viruses in cell-free samples, such as serum and plasma. The extraction process utilizes superparamagnetic microspheres without centrifugation. Extracted products can be used for digestion, PCR amplification, detection and other follow-up experiments.ABclonal
43903Viral Transport SystemThe Beaver Viral Transport System enables clinical specimens containing viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, to be collected, transported and stored at room temperature for up to one week before DNA/RNA isolation. The 43903 can be used in throat swabs and nasal swabs.ABclonal

More SARS-CoV-2 assay and rapid test kits can be found in our webshop


COVID-19 Chemicals

To date, treatment of patients with severe COVID-19 is limited, as potential therapies are still in the trial phases. Researchers are looking for antivirals that inhibit infection or replication of the coronavirus, as well as immunomodulatory compounds. The latter is relevant because many patients experience an overwhelming and sometimes deadly production of proinflammatory cytokines, known as the cytokine storm. Bio-Connect offers several compounds that can potentially alter the immune response in COVID-19 patients, such as Tocilizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody blocking the IL-6 receptor. We also offer promising agents relevant to antiviral research, such as Remdesivir (GS-5734), Camostat mesylate (TMPRSS2) and Favipiravir (T-705). These compounds are being investigated for their interference with SARS-CoV-2 and closely related viruses in the human body. On this page, you will also find compounds that are more distantly related to infectious diseases and have the potential to be effective in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Many of these compounds have already been approved for treatment of other diseases and therefore provide a strong advantage over new compounds, which would have to go through thorough safety testing. Finally, we offer an Anti-COVID-19 Compound Library (HY-L052) from MedChemExpress.

Most popular chemicals

Cat. No.DescriptionCAS No.Molecular WeightMolecular FormulaSupplier
HY-15315Baricitinib1187594-09-7371.42C16H17N7O2SMedChem Express
HY-13512Camostat (mesylate)59721-29-8494.52C21H26N4O8SMedChem Express
HY-17589Chloroquine (phosphate)50-63-5515.86C18H32ClN3O8P2MedChem Express
SC-217882Chloroquine-d4 Diphosphate Salt519.89C18H28D4ClN3O8P2Santa Cruz Biotechnology
SC-207531Desethyl Chloroquine 1476-52-4291.82C16H22ClN3Santa Cruz Biotechnology
AG-CR1-3744Dexamethasone phosphate . disodium salt2392-39-4470.4 . 46.0C22H28FO8P . 2NaAdipoGen Life Sciences
HY-14768Favipiravir (T-705)259793-96-9157.10C5H4FN3O2MedChem Express
HY-11063Fingolimod162359-55-9307.47C19H33NO2MedChem Express
AG167808GS 4415241191237-69-0291.26C12H13N5O4Biosynth Carbosynth
HY-B1370Hydroxychloroquine sulfate747-36-4433.95C18H28ClN3O5SMedChem Express
BL164636Lopinavir192725-17-0628.8C37H48N4O5Biosynth Carbosynth
ORB322688Lopinavir 192725-17-0321.16C37H48N4O5Biorbyt
AG-CR1-3643Niclosamide50-65-7327.1C13H8Cl2N2O4AdipoGen Life Sciences
HY-B0217Nitazoxanide55981-09-4307.28C12H9N3O5SMedChem Express
304-93521Phos-tag™ Acrylamide AAL-107, 10 mgFUJIFILM Wako Chemicals
300-93523Phos-tag™ Acrylamide AAL-107, 2 mgFUJIFILM Wako Chemicals
AG-CR1-3713Remdesivir1809249-37-3602.6C27H35N6O8PAdipoGen Life Sciences
HY-104077Remdesivir (GS-5734)1809249-37-3602.58C27H35N6O8PMedChem Express
AG-CR1-3645Ruxolitinib . phosphate salt1092939-17-7306.4 . 98.0C17H18N6 . H3O4PAdipoGen Life Sciences
AG-CR1-3575Suramin . 6Na129-46-41291.2 . 137.9C51H34N6O23S6 . 6NaAdipoGen Life Sciences

More antiviral agents and compound libraries for COVID-19 research can be found in our webshop


COVID-19 Plasmids

When investigating COVID-19 or producing kits for fellow researchers, it may be necessary to produce the individual proteins of SARS-CoV-2 or the host in a specific, controlled expression system. Cloning these expression vectors tends to be tedious and time consuming. Therefore, Bio-Connect offers a large number of ready-to-go viral gene products as well as plasmids containing the sequence for human proteins involved in infection. All plasmids come with several options of tags. If you cannot find the right plasmid, do not hesitate to send a custom cloning request for a plasmid that will perfectly suit your needs. It is also possible to reconstitute live virus of any coronavirus species, wild-type or mutated version, by transfecting a coronavirus vector into the proper packaging cells.

Most popular plasmids

Cat. No.DescriptionSupplier
79943Bald Lentiviral Pseudovirion (Luciferase Reporter)BPS Bioscience
HG10108-UTHuman ACE2 / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Gene ORF cDNA clone expression plasmidSino Biological
VG40605-CFHuman coronavirus(HCoV-229E) Spike Gene ORF cDNA clone expression plasmid, C-Flag tagSino Biological
HG10688-MHuman DPP4 / CD26 Gene ORF cDNA clone in cloning vectorSino Biological
VG40150-CFHuman SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Spike glycoprotein Gene ORF cDNA clone expression plasmid (Codon Optimized), C-Flag tagSino Biological
VG40150-G-NHuman SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Spike glycoprotein ORF mammalian expression plasmid (Codon Optimized)Sino Biological
VG40069-CHMERS-CoV (NCoV / Novel coronavirus) Spike Protein (Codon Optimized) ORF mammalian expression plasmid, C-His tagSino Biological
VG40594-UTSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) 3C-like proteinase/3CLpro Gene ORF cDNA clone expression plasmidSino Biological
VG40596-UTSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Helicase/HE Gene ORF cDNA clone expression plasmidSino Biological
VG40618-UTSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) NSP8 Gene ORF cDNA clone expression plasmidSino Biological
VG40588-UTSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleoprotein / NP ORF mammalian expression plasmid (Codon Optimized)Sino Biological
VG40588-CFSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleoprotein / NP ORF mammalian expression plasmid, C-FLAG tag (Codon Optimized)Sino Biological
VG40588-CHSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleoprotein / NP ORF mammalian expression plasmid, C-His tag (Codon Optimized)Sino Biological
VG40637-CFSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) ORF3A protein Gene ORF cDNA clone expression plasmid(Codon Optimized), C-Flag tagSino Biological
VG40589-UTSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike ORF mammalian expression plasmid (Codon Optimized)Sino Biological
VG40589-CHSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike ORF mammalian expression plasmid, C-His tag (Codon Optimized)Sino Biological
VG40589-CMSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike ORF mammalian expression plasmid, C-Myc tag (Codon Optimized)Sino Biological
VG40591-UTSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike(S1) ORF mammalian expression plasmid (Codon Optimized)Sino Biological
VG40591-CHSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike(S1) ORF mammalian expression plasmid, C-His tag (Codon Optimized)Sino Biological
VG40590-UTSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike(S2) ORF mammalian expression plasmid (Codon Optimized)Sino Biological

More SARS-CoV-2 and related plasmids can be found in our webshop




Custom vectors from VectorBuilder

VectorBuilder’s coronavirus vector system allows users to reconstitute live virus of any coronavirus species – wild-type or mutated version – by simply transfecting the vector into the proper packaging cells. The resulting virus can be further propagated and amplified to any quantity in the appropriate cell line. They also offer a variety of lentivirus vectors pseudotyped with S proteins from a wide range of coronavirus species. Different vectors can be used to express different reporters, such as EGFP or luciferase, allowing the monitoring of viral entry into host cells by a variety of means.

VectorBuilder also offers VSV Pseudotyped with Coronavirus S protein. They will assist you with the design and have unlimited customization options. It provides a safe alternative to live SARS-CoV-2 virus for studying S protein-mediated entry into host cells. Additionally, you can use bald VSV, lacking the viral envelope, as a negative control.

Design your own vector or send vector design request for:

- Coronavirus vectors
- Lentivirus pseudotyped with Coronavirus S protein
VSV Pseudotyped with Coronavirus S protein
Cell line models for coronavirus research
Animal models for coronavirus research

Use the code "BioConnect_15%Off_2020" to get a 15% discount on your order.


References

  1. ACE2 is the receptor for SARS (SARS-CoV). Li, W. et al., EMBO J (2005)24:1634-1643
  2. ACE2 is the receptor for the new virus, SARS-CoV-2. Zhou P, et al. (March 2020). "A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin". Nature. 579 (7798): 270–273.
  3. SARS-CoV-2 binding to ACE2 on human cells with at least 10x higher affinity than SARS-CoV. Wrapp, D., et al. Science 13 Mar 2020. Vol. 367( 6483): 1260-1263
  4. Angiotensin receptor blockers have been proposed as tentative SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics. Gurwitz D (March 2020). "Angiotensin receptor blockers as tentative SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics". Drug Development Research
  5. ACE2 has been shown to have a protective effect against virus-induced lung injury. Imai Y, et al. (July 2005). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure". Nature. 436 (7047): 112–6.
  6. El-Tholoth, Mohamed; Bau, Haim H.; Song, Jinzhao (2020): A Single and Two-Stage, Closed-Tube, Molecular Test for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) at Home, Clinic, and Points of Entry. ChemRxiv. Preprint.
  7. Favipiravir (T-705), a Broad Spectrum Inhibitor of Viral RNA Polymerase. Furuta Y, et al. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2017;93(7):449-463.
  8. Coronavirus Susceptibility to the Antiviral Remdesivir (GS-5734) Is Mediated by the Viral Polymerase and the Proofreading Exoribonuclease. Agostini ML, et al. mBio. 2018 Mar 6;9(2).
  9. Remdesivir and Chloroquine Effectively Inhibit the Recently Emerged Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Wang M, et al. Cell Res. 2020 Mar;30(3):269-271.
  10. Effect of Toll-Like Receptor 7 and 9 Targeted Therapy to Prevent the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Mohamed FE, et al. Liver Int. 2015 Mar;35(3):1063-76.
  11. in vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Yao X, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 9. pii: ciaa237.
  12. Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of TLR7 and TLR9: Mechanism of Action and Efficacy in vivo. Lamphier M, et al. Mol Pharmacol. 2014 Mar;85(3):429-40.
  13. The Origin, Transmission and Clinical Therapies on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak - An Update on the Status. Guo, Y., et al. Mil Med Res. 2020 Mar 13;7(1):11.
  14. SARS Coronavirus Replicase Proteins in Pathogenesis. Graham RL, et al. Virus Res. 2008 Apr;133(1):88-100.
  15. Characterization of the Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) of 2019 Novel Coronavirus: Implication for Development of RBD Protein as a Viral Attachment Inhibitor and Vaccine. Wanbo Tai, et al. Cell Mol Immunol. 2020 Mar 19.
  16. Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis. Fehr AR, et al. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1282:1-23.
  17. SARS and MERS: Recent Insights Into Emerging Coronaviruses. de Wit E, et al. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2016 Aug;14(8):523-34.

More COVID-19 tests & assay kits »»