SARS-CoV-2

View our wide range of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) related reagents

SARS-CoV-2

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic still requires attention from researchers around the globe, especially due to the rapid mutation rate of the virus. The virus attaches to cells by binding its outer spike proteins to the receptor protein ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), which is highly expressed on respiratory cells. ACE2 also acts as the receptor for the human respiratory coronavirus NL63 and the SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Studies have shown that the binding affinity of the viral spike protein for ACE2 correlates with higher transmissibility of the coronavirus and contagiousness of the disease. Researchers are investigating both antiviral drugs and vaccines to block infection and replication of the virus [ref. 1-5]. Additionally, many scientists are looking into the ‘cytokine storm’, an excessive production of cytokines in response to the virus leading to adverse effects in the patient.

Several of our suppliers offer tools to assist researchers who are investigating treatments and vaccines against COVID-19. In this section, we give you an overview of all corona-related research reagents that we offer.

Sino Biological has been named CiteAb Protein Supplier to Watch in 2021 and Supplier Succeeding in SARS-CoV-2 Research.

SARS-CoV-2 and related products

3CLproHCoV-229EMERS CoV-orf4aORF8
ACE2HCoV-HKU1MERS CoV-orf4bPLpro
APN/CD13HCoV-NL63MERS CoV-orf5RdRp
Camostat mesylateHCoV-OC43MERS-CoVRemdesivir
Cathepsin / CTSL1Hemagglutinin esteraseNSP1SARS-CoV
DcCoVHydroxychloroquineNSP3SARS-CoV-2
DC-SIGN / CD209MERS CoV-ENSP8SIGNR1 / CD209b
DexamethasoneMERS CoV-MNucleocapsidSpike
DPP4/CD26MERS CoV-orf3ORF7aTMPRSS2
Click on the targets and go directly to the products. More SARS-CoV-2 related product can be found in our webshop.

COVID-19 tests and assay kits

Correct diagnosis of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is of paramount importance in fighting the pandemic caused by it. Therefore a large effort was put into quickly developing tests and assay kits for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in, for example, blood or swabs from patients with symptoms of COVID-19. These kits are mainly focused on either identifying the viral RNA by RT-PCR or finding antibodies against the viral membrane proteins. Several of these testing systems have acquired the CE-IVD certification immediately and are therefore suitable for in vitro diagnostics of patients. One of the highly anticipated tests is the rapid test, which is a chromatographic immunoassay that indicates the presence of primary and secondary infection based on the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.

Bio-Connect Diagnostics offers a number of different rapid tests (with and without CE-IVD mark) as well as PCR-based assays. Additionally, we offer a number of high-quality ELISA kits for detection of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 or the identification of viral antigen proteins in human plasma and serum. Our assays allow high-throughput testing of a large number of patient samples or sporadic checks on individuals.

We offer various SARS-CoV-2 detection kits, such as rapid tests, PCR kits, ELISA kits and kits for viral sample preparation, including the iLAMP Novel CoV19 iONEBIO FICS and RapiGEN’s BIOCREDIT COVID-19 Ag kit. If you want to order, please send your request to: orders(at)bio-connect.nl


COVID-19 antibodies

Antibodies are some of the most widely used research tools in life science. The specificity and affinity of these antibodies are of paramount importance for the success of a study. Bio-Connect offers a comprehensive portfolio of high quality antibodies directed against the different components of SARS-CoV-2 as well as ACE2, allowing you to find a suitable antibody for any application. Besides this, we offer many related antibodies, for example targeting SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses. The manufacturing partners put great effort into testing the quality of their products and support the five pillars of antibody validation.


COVID-19 proteins

As soon as the sequence of SARS-CoV-2 was determined in early 2020, the production of recombinant proteins was initiated. Recombinantly expressed protein is essential for investigation into the function of viral proteins and their separate subunits in COVID-19. Different parts of the coronavirus are investigated for potential treatment, production of preventive medicine or diagnostic kits. However, there is a particularly strong focus on the spike protein, which is mainly responsible for entry into the host cell. This protein is made up of several subunits, including the surface unit S1, transmembrane unit S2 and the receptor-binding domain (RBD). In addition to the spike protein, important components are the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the human ACE2 and TMPRSS receptors. Bio-Connect offers a comprehensive set of important SARS-CoV-2 and related proteins from several manufacturers.

SARS-CoV-2 variants

The last few months many SARS-CoV-2 variants are spreading across the planet. Our suppliers have worked hard to develop various new recombinant spike variants and other relevant products. These include the British variant B.1.1.7 (N501Y, P681H, D614G, et.al), the Brazilian variant P.1 (K417T, E484K, N501Y, et.al), the South African variant B.1.351 (N501Y, E484K, K417N, et.al) and the Indian variant B.1.617 (E484Q, L452R, P681R, et.al).


COVID-19 chemicals

To date, treatment of patients with severe COVID-19 is limited, as potential therapies are still in the trial phases. Researchers are looking for antivirals that inhibit infection or replication of the coronavirus, as well as immunomodulatory compounds. The latter is relevant because many patients experience an overwhelming and sometimes deadly production of proinflammatory cytokines, known as the cytokine storm. Bio-Connect offers several compounds that can potentially alter the immune response in COVID-19 patients, such as Tocilizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody blocking the IL-6 receptor. We also offer promising agents relevant to antiviral research, such as Remdesivir (GS-5734), Camostat mesylate (TMPRSS2) and Favipiravir (T-705). These compounds are being investigated for their interference with SARS-CoV-2 and closely related viruses in the human body. On this page, you will also find compounds that are more distantly related to infectious diseases and have the potential to be effective in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Many of these compounds have already been approved for treatment of other diseases and therefore provide a strong advantage over new compounds, which would have to go through thorough safety testing. Finally, we offer an Anti-COVID-19 Compound Library (HY-L052) from MedChem Express.


COVID-19 plasmids

When investigating COVID-19 or producing kits for fellow researchers, it may be necessary to produce the individual proteins of SARS-CoV-2 or the host in a specific, controlled expression system. Cloning these expression vectors tends to be tedious and time consuming. Therefore, Bio-Connect offers a large number of ready-to-go viral gene products as well as plasmids containing the sequence for human proteins involved in infection. All plasmids come with several options of tags. If you cannot find the right plasmid, do not hesitate to send a custom cloning request for a plasmid that will perfectly suit your needs. It is also possible to reconstitute live virus of any coronavirus species, wild-type or mutated version, by transfecting a coronavirus vector into the proper packaging cells.


Furin & Cathepsin L: New Targets for COVID-19 Drug Screening

In addition to PromoCell’s assays for studying binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2 receptor and screening for respective inhibitors/drugs, they offer the Furin Activity Assay Kit & Furin Inhibitor Screening Kit as well as Cathepsin L Activity Assay Kit & Cathepsin L Inhibitor Screening Kit as tools to develop new targeted therapeutics for COVID-19. In addition, a broad range of other Cathepsin Assays, Cathepsin Inhibitors as well as recombinant Cathepsins, Cathepsin antibodies & ELISAs also useful to study SARS-CoV infections (e.g. Cathepsin B) are available at PromoCell. They also supply a choice of biochemicals with known inhibitory effects on SARS-CoVs as well as a range of high-quality antibodies specifically directed against particular components of SARS-CoV and the ACE2 receptor.


Custom vectors from VectorBuilder

VectorBuilder’s coronavirus vector system allows users to reconstitute live virus of any coronavirus species – wild-type or mutated version – by simply transfecting the vector into the proper packaging cells. The resulting virus can be further propagated and amplified to any quantity in the appropriate cell line. They also offer a variety of lentivirus vectors pseudotyped with S proteins from a wide range of coronavirus species. Different vectors can be used to express different reporters, such as EGFP or luciferase, allowing the monitoring of viral entry into host cells by a variety of means.

VectorBuilder also offers VSV Pseudotyped with Coronavirus S protein. They will assist you with the design and have unlimited customization options. It provides a safe alternative to live SARS-CoV-2 virus for studying S protein-mediated entry into host cells. Additionally, you can use bald VSV, lacking the viral envelope, as a negative control.

Design your own vector or send vector design request for:


References
  1. ACE2 is the receptor for SARS (SARS-CoV). Li, W. et al., EMBO J (2005)24:1634-1643
  2. ACE2 is the receptor for the new virus, SARS-CoV-2. Zhou P, et al. (March 2020). “A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin”. Nature. 579 (7798): 270–273.
  3. SARS-CoV-2 binding to ACE2 on human cells with at least 10x higher affinity than SARS-CoV. Wrapp, D., et al. Science 13 Mar 2020. Vol. 367( 6483): 1260-1263
  4. Angiotensin receptor blockers have been proposed as tentative SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics. Gurwitz D (March 2020). “Angiotensin receptor blockers as tentative SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics”. Drug Development Research
  5. ACE2 has been shown to have a protective effect against virus-induced lung injury. Imai Y, et al. (July 2005). “Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure”. Nature. 436 (7047): 112–6.
  6. El-Tholoth, Mohamed; Bau, Haim H.; Song, Jinzhao (2020): A Single and Two-Stage, Closed-Tube, Molecular Test for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) at Home, Clinic, and Points of Entry. ChemRxiv. Preprint.
  7. Favipiravir (T-705), a Broad Spectrum Inhibitor of Viral RNA Polymerase. Furuta Y, et al. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2017;93(7):449-463.
  8. Coronavirus Susceptibility to the Antiviral Remdesivir (GS-5734) Is Mediated by the Viral Polymerase and the Proofreading Exoribonuclease. Agostini ML, et al. mBio. 2018 Mar 6;9(2).
  9. Remdesivir and Chloroquine Effectively Inhibit the Recently Emerged Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Wang M, et al. Cell Res. 2020 Mar;30(3):269-271.
  10. Effect of Toll-Like Receptor 7 and 9 Targeted Therapy to Prevent the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Mohamed FE, et al. Liver Int. 2015 Mar;35(3):1063-76.
  11. in vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Yao X, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 9. pii: ciaa237.
  12. Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of TLR7 and TLR9: Mechanism of Action and Efficacy in vivo. Lamphier M, et al. Mol Pharmacol. 2014 Mar;85(3):429-40.
  13. The Origin, Transmission and Clinical Therapies on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak – An Update on the Status. Guo, Y., et al. Mil Med Res. 2020 Mar 13;7(1):11.
  14. SARS Coronavirus Replicase Proteins in Pathogenesis. Graham RL, et al. Virus Res. 2008 Apr;133(1):88-100.
  15. Characterization of the Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) of 2019 Novel Coronavirus: Implication for Development of RBD Protein as a Viral Attachment Inhibitor and Vaccine. Wanbo Tai, et al. Cell Mol Immunol. 2020 Mar 19.
  16. Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis. Fehr AR, et al. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1282:1-23.
  17. SARS and MERS: Recent Insights Into Emerging Coronaviruses. de Wit E, et al. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2016 Aug;14(8):523-34.
  18. Song E, Zhang C, Israelow B, et al. Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in human and mouse brain. J Exp Med. 2021;218(3).
  19. Huang K-Y, Lin M-S, Kuo T-C, et al. Humanized COVID-19 decoy antibody effectively blocks viral entry and prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection. EMBO Mol Med. Published online November 6, 2020:e12828.
  20. Zhao CL, Rapkiewicz A, Maghsoodi-Deerwester M, et al. Pathological findings in the postmortem liver of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hum Pathol. 2020;109:59-68.
  21. Valk JE, Chong AM, Uhlemann A-C, Debelenko L. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in placental but not fetal tissues in the second trimester. J Perinatol. Published online November 30, 2020.
  22. Nunes-Santos CJ, Kuehn HS, Rosenzweig SD. N-glycan modification in covid-19 pathophysiology: in vitro structural changes with limited functional effects. J Clin Immunol. 2021;41(2):335-344.
  23. Rockx B, Kuiken T, Herfst S, et al. Comparative pathogenesis of COVID-19, MERS, and SARS in a nonhuman primate model. Science. 2020;368(6494):1012-1015.
  24. Yu J, Tostanoski LH, Peter L, et al. DNA vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. Science. 2020;369(6505):806-811.
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